Where in the World Archives

September 2014 Issue

Sigiriya (Lion Rock), Sri Lanka


Sigiriya, also known as Lion Rock, sits near the center of the island of Sri Lanka. Over 1,500 years ago, the 660-foot-tall column of rock was the centerpiece of a walled city complex measuring almost two miles wide and over half a mile long. On top of the rock plateau, a fortified palace was built by King Kasyapa, who ruled from AD 477 to 495. Partway up the rock, visitors entered the fortress through the mouth of an enormous lion constructed of bricks. Sigiriya and the grounds of the lower city featured advanced underground water conduits and landscaped gardens.

Kasyapa had risen to power by having his father put to death. He feared revenge from his half-brother, Moggallana, the rightful heir, who fled to southern India. He built the fortress for protection, but it wasn’t enough. Moggallana returned in AD 495, vanquishing Kasyapa and his army.

The palace became neglected and is no longer there. The lion’s head collapsed many years ago and all that remains are its paws, which were pictured in the July 2014 issue. To this day, during the rainy season, water fountains at the base of the rock are still functional.

Forty-nine people correctly identified the subject of the photo, and MICHAEL R. SHARON, M.D., of Ellington, Connecticut, won the drawing. We thank Dick Alvernaz of Lakeside, California, for submitting the photo.

Correct answers were submitted by:

Dottie & Bud Anderson, Concord, CA; Diana Butler, El Sobrante, CA; Steven Clift, North Little Rock, AR; Meg Coulter, Los Angeles, CA; Edwin Earl, Laguna Beach, CA; Bill Fagan, San Diego, CA; Femi Faminu, Los Angeles, CA; Diane Powell Ferguson, Scottsdale, AZ; Sherryl Frisch, Wimauma, FL; Deborah Futch, Winter Haven, FL; Norma & Steve Goldberger, Milford, OH; John Golden, Washington, D.C.; Susan Greek, Corona, CA; Freddi Hammerschlag, Highland, MD; Phil Haney, Laguna Beach, CA; Signe Haugen, San Carlos, CA; Magali Hinojosa, Laredo, TX; Samuel Leon Hockman, Fort Lauderdale, FL; Jane & Clyde Holt, Hinesburg, VT; Conrad Houge, South Colby, WA; Doranne Jacobson, Springfield, IL; Diane Jarrett, Newport Beach, CA; Henry Kammerer, Grand Island, NY; Karyn Kandell, Kyoto, Japan; George C. Kingston, East Longmeadow, MA; Robert Knox, Hollywood, CA; Janet Kolbaska, Mount Prospect, IL; Sylvia Levi, Studio City, CA; Herschell Gordon Lewis, Pompano Beach, FL; Allan Little III, Atlanta, GA; Lisa McCary, Laredo, TX; Nili Olay, New York, NY; James Oliver, Memphis, TN; Sherry Pate, Fort Myers, FL; Sharon Phillis, Kingwood, TX; Raymond Prince, Maple Valley, WA; Lakshman Ratnapala, San Francisco, CA; Cliff Rhode; Dennis Rompasky, Kula, HI; Jo Ellen Ryan, Davis, CA; Kenneth Schwartz, Los Angeles, CA; WINNER: Michael R. Sharon, Ellington, CT; George Sonnichsen, The Villages, FL; Antonia Sparano, Los Angeles, CA; Edith H. Speir, Annandale, VA; James Stefan, Sarasota, FL; Neal Steinbrenner, Costa Mesa, CA; Phyllis & David Stolls, Riverside, CA; Jill Sullivan, Waynesboro, VA; Kathy Wilhelm, Cary, NC.
Sigiriya (Lion Rock), Sri Lanka

Tumuli Park, Gyeongju, South Korea

August 2014 Issue

Tumuli Park, Gyeongju, South Korea


Unmistakable to those who have visited the site pictured here in the June 2014 issue are the royal burial mounds in Tumuli Park (also known as Daereungwon), located in Gyeongju (Kyongju), South Korea. There are 23 mounds in the park, each containing the ancient tomb of a king or nobleman from the Silla (Shilla) Kingdom, a dynasty that lasted almost 1,000 years, from 57 BC to AD 935.
Tumuli Park

Gyeongju is about 200 miles southeast of the country’s capital, Seoul, a 4-hour bus ride away. In the mid-1970s, houses were removed from the area and several tombs excavated. Visitors can walk to all of the tombs on paths winding through the park.

The most well-known tombs there are King Michu’s “Bamboo Tomb”; the double-humped tomb known as Hwangnam Daechong (believed to have belonged to a royal couple), and Cheonmachong (Heavenly Horse Tomb), where more than 10,000 artifacts were discovered in 1973. Cheonmachong is the only tomb open to visitors; it shows some of the artifacts and how they were arranged.

Nine correct answers were submitted, and ALLAN S. HODGSON of Lakeway, Texas, won the drawing. We thank Kathy Wilhelm of Cary, North Carolina, for submitting the photo.

Correct answers were submitted by:

Edna R.S. Alvarez, Los Angeles, CA; Terrell M. Emmons, Springfield, VA; Pauline Griffith, Los Angeles, CA; Signe Haugen, San Carlos, CA; WINNER: Allan Hodgson, Lakeway, TX; Jane & Clyde Holt, Hinesburg, VT; Linda Huetinck, Alhambra, CA; Theodore Liebersfeld, Boynton Beach, FL; Jill Sullivan, Waynesboro, VA.

July 2014 Issue

Curvilinear Range, Irish National Botanic Gardens, in Glasnevin, Dublin, Ireland


The mystery photo in the May 2014 issue was taken in the Irish National Botanic Gardens in Glasnevin, a neighborhood in the Northside area of Dublin, Ireland. The row of greenhouses is part of a structure called the Curvilinear Range.

Most of those who submitted guesses, however, thought the picture was taken at the Royal Botanic Gardens in Kew, London, England. There's no mystery why the structures are similar. Dublin-born ironmaster Richard Turner, who designed the Curvilinear Range, was also involved with the design and construction of the Victorian-style Palm Houses at Kew Gardens and in Belfast, Northern Ireland.

In the Glasnevin gardens (where admission is free), the oldest part of the Curvilinear Range is the East Wing, built in 1843. The remaining sections of the building were completed in 1869, when the size of each of the two extreme wings was doubled. Renovations done in 1995 used the structure’s original wrought iron.

Built between 1844 and 1848, the Victorian-style Palm House in London's Kew Gardens is 30 feet longer than Glasnevin’s Curvilinear Range, and, at its highest point, 32 feet taller than the central dome in Glasnevin’s row of greenhouses.

MARIANNE AYRES of Tucson, Arizona, provided the only correct answer. We thank Diane Harrison of Chesterfield, Missouri, for contributing the photo. Diane told ITN that she’s been to Kew Gardens as well and thinks the greenhouses at Glasnevin are more beautiful.
Curvilinear Range, Irish National Botanic Gardens, in Glasnevin, Dublin, Ireland

Manaca-Iznaga Tower, Cuba

June 2014 Issue

Manaca-Iznaga Tower, Cuba


Manaca-Iznaga Tower

Looking down from the top of Manaca-Iznaga Tower over the Valle de Los Ingenios (Valley of the Sugar Mills), a UNESCO World Heritage Site in central Cuba, is an experience that was limited to only a few privileged individuals a couple of centuries ago.

Pictured in the April 2014 issue, the tower was built in 1816 by Alejo Maria Iznaga y Borrell, a plantation owner who wanted to make sure others recognized his power and wealth. The bell that hung in the tower announced the start and end of each workday for slaves working in the sugar mills and plantations, but it also sounded an alarm should any of them escape. At one time, more than 30,000 slaves worked in cane sugar mills throughout the three valleys.

A 184-step stairway in the center of the 147-foot tower, 12 kilometers northwest of the town of Trinidad, takes visitors all the way to the top. Divided into seven levels of different geometric shapes, the tower is made of mud bricks and a mortar of lime and sand.

Five correct answers were submitted, and JOYCE RENEE LEWIS of Camano Island, Washington, won the drawing. We thank Diana Butler of El Sobrante, California, for contributing the photo.

Correct answers were submitted by:

T.M. Elefant, San Jose, CA; Wendlandt Hasselle, Tunica, MS; Signe Haugen, San Carlos, CA; WINNER: Joyce Renee Lewis, Camano Island, WA; Mark A. Varnau, Indianapolis, IN.

May 2014 Issue

Falkirk Wheel, Scotland


Just west of the town of Falkirk in central Scotland is where you’ll see the unusual structure shown in the photo in the March 2014 issue. The Falkirk Wheel is the only rotating boat lift in the world. It connects the Forth and Clyde Canal with the Union Canal near Falkirk, transporting narrowboats 115 feet between the different levels of water.
Falkirk Wheel

When the lift opened in 2002, it was the first time the two canals had been connected since the 1930s, when the locks were dismantled after the canals fell into disuse. Located halfway between Edinburgh and Glasgow, the lift also reopened the water route between the two cities. Prior to 1933, boats traveled through a series of 11 locks between the canals.

Actually, the picture shows the aqueduct that connects the Union Canal to the Falkirk Wheel’s upper gondola. (Karl Snepp of Redmond, WA, and the Lathens of Occidental, CA — who were among those who guessed correctly — pointed this out.)

Twenty-three correct answers were submitted, and MARIE T. MURR of Mooresville, NC, won the drawing. We thank Judy Spielman of Philadelphia, PA, for contributing the photo.

Correct answers were submitted by:

Stephen O. Addison, Jr., Charlotte, NC; Thomas Beam, Great Falls, MT; Jerry Coleman, Sebastopol, CA; Jan Foster, Seattle, WA; Signe Haugen, San Carlos, CA; Jeffrey Henn, Tinton Falls, NJ; Allan Hodgson, Lakeway, TX; Lee Lamond, North Wales, PA; Sue Larson, Mountain View, CA; Melanie & Gary Lathen, Occidental, CA; Nancy A. Logan, Jamestown, RI; Phil Lutzi, St. Pete Beach, FL; Cynthia E. Lyle, San Antonio, TX; Alexander McDonald, Dana Point, CA; WINNER: Marie T. Murr, Mooresville, NC; Raymond Prince, Maple Valley, WA; Donna Pyle, Boulder, CO; David Riegert, Reno, NV; Karl Snepp, Redmond, WA; Jill Sullivan, Waynesboro, VA; Robert P. Townley, Columbia, CA; Dr. Joseph Whitehouse, Oakland, CA; Janet D. Sheridan & DeWitt (Dee) Whittington, Richmond, VA.
Falkirk Wheel, Scotland

Defenders of the Soviet Arctic

April 2014 Issue

Defenders of the Soviet Arctic


If the February “Where in the World?” photo looked familiar, it’s because a picture of the same monument was printed in this space in the April '12 issue. This time, however, you got to see the FRONT of the statue.
Alyosha

The massive monument “Defenders of the Soviet Arctic during the Great Patriotic War,” also known as Alyosha, stands in Murmansk, northwestern Russia, honoring the Soviet soldiers, sailors and airmen who defended their homeland against the Germans during World War II. In October of this year, it will have been 40 years since Alyosha was erected.

Thirty-three correct answers were submitted, and JOHN KIRCHGESNER of Demarest, New Jersey, won the drawing. We thank Pete Gandell of San Francisco, California, for contributing the photo.

Correct answers were submitted by:

Irina, Ontario, Canada; Patricia Bunyard, Cambria, CA; Janice Buxton, Huntington Beach, CA; Ron Dahl, Balboa, CA; Susan Darsey, La Selva Beach, CA; Tom & Linda DeChaine, Penn Valley, CA; Marilyn Drews, San Mateo, CA; Nan Hampton, Austin, TX; Stephen Jeffries, Centennial, CO; Leslie Jones, Oakland, CA; KR Kennedy, Portland, OR; WINNER: John Kirchgesner, Demarest, NJ; Lee Lamond, North Wales, PA; Sue Larson, Mountain View, CA; Kenneth Levine, Greenbelt, MD; Phil Lutzi, St. Pete Beach, FL; Sandra Lydahl, Temple, TX; Carol Ann Nulk, San Jose, CA; Anthony Osretkar, Frederick, MD; Sally Otto, Dunedin, FL; Raymond Prince, Maple Valley, WA; John Reading, Brookline, MA; Gerry Rollefson, St. Michaels, MD; Lorenz Rychner, Denver, CO; Mona Sage, Ponca City, OK; Barbara Skelly, Oakland, CA; Michael Tolle, Menlo Park, CA; Pamela Trucks, Mesa, AZ; Charles Twine, Durham, NC; Sharon VanDewark, San Diego, CA; Ronald Weddle, Golden, CO; Scott White, Durango, CO; Eilean D. Yates, Pittsboro, NC.

March 2014 Issue

Tomb of John Russell Colvin


The Red Fort of Agra, India, is where January’s photo was taken. It shows the tomb of John Russell Colvin, a British civil servant who served as lieutenant-governor of British India's North-West Frontier Provinces in the 1850s.
The tomb of John Russell Colvin.

Four years after Colvin was appointed to the post, mutiny (now known as India’s First War for Independence) erupted in India. In 1857, at the height of the rebellion, Colvin died of cholera at the age of 50. The rebellion signaled the end of India’s rule by Britain’s East India Company and the beginning of direct rule by the British crown. The British Raj (reign) lasted from 1857 to 1947, when the Indian Empire was split into two sovereign states: India and Pakistan.

Shortly before his death, Colvin issued a proclamation that recommended leniency for most of the rebels. Although this policy was criticized at the time, British authorities eventually adopted it.

The 94-acre Red Fort, a combination of Hindu and Islamic architecture, was rebuilt with red sandstone by Mughals in the 16th century. The original fort was made of brick as early as the 11th century.

Four correct answers were submitted, and WILLIAM RAFFEL of Savannah, Georgia, won the drawing. We thank David J. Patten of St. Petersburg, Florida, for contributing the photo.

Correct answers were submitted by:

Doranne Jacobson, Springfield, IL; Lavinia Marx, Portland, OR; WINNER: William Raffel, Savannah, GA; Pam Reimann, Evansville, IN.
Tomb of John Russell Colvin

Mausoleo di Teodorico, Italy

February 2014 Issue

Mausoleo di Teodorico, Italy


Planning ahead, Theoderic (sometimes spelled Theodoric) the Great, king of the Ostrogoths from AD 493 until his death in 526, built his tomb in 520 on the outskirts of Ravenna, Italy. Pictured in the December '13 issue, the Mausoleo di Teodorico, the only surviving example of a king's tomb from this period, is recognized for its style and decoration,* devoid of any Roman or Byzantine artwork. The lower story of the mausoleum is a decagon, while the upper story is circular, with a 36-foot-wide monolithic dome made of limestone imported from Istria (in modern-day Croatia).

Twelve correct answers were submitted, and D'NESE GRANGER of Princeville, Hawaii, won the drawing. We thank Solomon Gold of Las Vegas, Nevada, for contributing the photo.

Correct answers were submitted by:

Jack Brown, Chicago, IL; Yvonne Dixon, Washington, D.C.; Richard A. Foltz, Emmaus, PA; WINNER: D'nese Granger, Princeville, HI; Signe Haugen, San Carlos, CA; Karen Knish, Canton, OH; Margaret McCormick, Brookline, MA; Janet McGary, Sunnyvale, CA; Patricia Ove, Rio Rancho, NM; Jill Sullivan, Waynesboro, VA; Richard Taylor, Natchitoches, LA; Claire Wait, Sutter Creek, CA.

*In the February '14 issue, the answer stated that the Mausoleum of Theoderic the Great "has been recognized for its Gothic style and decoration." Reader David J. Patten of St. Petersburg, Florida, who has a master's degree in Art and Architectural History, pointed out, "Built in 520 CE, the mausoleum is difficult to identify stylistically. It's really not Byzantine, nor can one call it Early Christian. It's also too early to call Romanesque. I'd probably call it very late Roman." (Correction published in the March 2014 issue.)

January 2014 Issue

Ak-Sarai Palace, Uzbekistan


Over 600 years have passed since construction began on the structure you see in November’s photo. It is what remains of Ak-Saray (Ak-Sarai), which was Amir Timur’s (Amir Temur's) summer palace, built in his hometown of Shakhrisabz, Uzbekistan. Construction is said to have begun in 1380, and a surviving inscription gives the date of the palace's completion as "798 A.H.," or AD 1395-96. However, further construction and embellishment went on until Timur's death in 1405. Today, all that remains are the huge portals.
Ak-Sarai Palace, Uzbekistan

The ruler of Uzbekistan, Amir Timur — also known as Timur the Great and Tamerlane — believed his buildings to be the best in the world. One legend claims that gold sand was put into the clay used to make the first bricks for the palace. The height of the main portal was 230 feet, as tall as a 20-story building, and the corner towers were more than 30 feet taller than that.

Twenty-four correct answers were submitted, and PRESTON REEVES of Seguin, Texas, won the drawing. We thank Alan R. Lichtenstein of Commack, New York, for contributing the photo.

Correct answers were submitted by:

Bette Adelman, Scottsdale, AZ; Dottie & Bud Anderson, Concord, CA; Shirley & Victor Becker, Skokie, IL; Robert Bowes, Cleveland Heights, OH; Robert W. Clemmer, Yorba Linda, CA; Brooks Goddard, Needham, MA; Stuart A. Green, M.D., Los Alamitos, CA; Signe Haugen, San Carlos, CA; Magali V. Hinojosa, Laredo, TX; Neil Johnson, San Jose, CA; Mark Kirby, New York, NY; Janet Lakin, Redmond, OR; Joseph B. Lambert, San Antonio, TX; David J. Patten, St. Petersburg, FL; Dr. Richard C. Pearson, Raleigh, NC; WINNER: Preston Reeves, Seguin, TX; Cleo Reilly, Portland, OR; Rick Sinding, Princeton, NJ; Jeanne & Dave Smith, Irvine, CA; George Sonnichsen, The Villages, FL; Barbara Virden, Santa Ana, CA; Robert C. Wilson, Indian Head, MD; Wendy Windebank, Pacific Palisades, CA; Teresa Zabala, Salinas, CA.
Ak-Sarai Palace, Uzbekistan

Cruz del Tercer Milenio, Chile

December 2013 Issue

Cruz del Tercer Milenio, Chile


Cruz del Tercer Milenio (Cross of the Third Millennium), Chile

October’s photo shows the Cruz del Tercer Milenio, or Cross of the Third Millennium, in Coquimbo, Chile, a monument erected to commemorate the Catholic Church’s Great Jubilee, in 2000, in recognition of the beginning of the third millennium following the birth of Christ.

Erected at the summit of Cerro el Vigia (Lookout Hill) at 197 meters (646 feet) above sea level, the cross consists of three columns emerging from an equilateral triangle, representing the Holy Trinity. It also has a high-tech bell tower, life-size bronze sculptures of the Stations of the Cross, a large chapel and a replica of Michelangelo’s "Pietà."

Standing 83 meters (272 feet) tall, the cross is the tallest monument in South America. The arms of the cross stretch 40 meters wide, and windows allow a 360-degree panoramic view of the city, bay and Pacific Ocean. Visitors can reach the windows by elevator or stairs in the structure’s central column.

Nine correct answers were submitted, and BRIAN WEAVER of Burlington, Kentucky, won the drawing. We thank Jack W. Dini of Livermore, California, for contributing the photo.

Correct answers were sent in by:

Cynthia Bauzon, Rockville, MD; Terrell Emmons, Springfield, VA; Signe Haugen, San Carlos, CA; John & Eileen Leach, Hickory, NC; Phil Lutzi, St. Pete Beach, FL; Charles Rhine, Greeley, CO; Maureen Rompasky, Kula, HI; Charles Twine, Durham, NC; WINNER: Brian Weaver, Burlington, KY.